Scoliosis surgery is one of the longest and most complicated orthopedic surgical procedures performed on children or adult. The operation takes approximately six hours. Hospitalization can last several (usually around six) days and activities are restricted for several months. Scoliosis is best treated when found early and can be detected during a routine school screening. This is surgery repairs abnormal curving of the spine. The goal is to safely straighten your child's spine and align your child’s shoulders and hips to correct your child’s back problem.
Scoliosis is an abnormal curve in the spine. There are several types of scoliosis based on the cause and age when the curve develops. Depending on the severity of the curve and the risk for it getting worse, scoliosis can be treated with observation, bracing, or surgery. Spinal fusion is very successful in stopping the curve from growing. Today, doctors are also able to straighten the curve significantly, which improves the patient's appearance.
There are several reasons to treat scoliosis:
ü Appearance is a major concern.
ü Scoliosis often causes back pain.
ü If the curve is severe enough, scoliosis affects your child's breathing.
Braces are often tried first to keep the curve from getting worse.
The choice of when to have surgery will vary.
ü After the bones of the skeleton stop growing, the curve should not get much worse. Because of this, the surgeon may wait until your child's bones stop growing.
ü Your child may need surgery before this if the curve in the spine is severe or is getting worse quickly.
Surgery is usually recommended for the following children and adolescents with scoliosis of unknown cause (idiopathic scoliosis):
ü All young people whose skeletons have matured, and who have a curve greater than 45 degrees.
ü Growing children whose curve has gone beyond 40 degrees.
If your curve is greater than 50 degrees, it will most likely get worse, even after you are fully grown. This may increase the cosmetic deformity in your back, as well as affect your lung function. Surgery is recommended. Curves between 40 and 50 degrees in a growing child fall into a grey area — several factors may influence whether surgery is recommended. These should be discussed with your surgeon.
Physical Abnormalities. Researchers are investigating possible physical abnormalities that may cause imbalances in bones or muscles that would lead to scoliosis. Some research suggests that imbalances in the muscles around the vertebrae may make children susceptible to spinal distortions as they grow.
Problems in Coordination. Some experts are looking at inherited defects in perception or coordination that may cause unusual growth in the spine of some children with scoliosis.
Other Biological Factors. Several other biological factors are being investigated for some contribution to scoliosis:
ü Elevated levels of the enzyme matrix metalloproteinases may cause abnormalities in components in the spinal disks, contributing to disk degeneration.
ü Abnormalities in a protein called platelet calmodulin that binds to calcium. This protein acts like a tiny muscle and pulls clots together.
There are two general approaches to the scoliosis surgery – a posterior approach and an anterior approach (from the front of the spine). Specific surgery is recommended based on the type and location of the curve.
Scoliosis Surgery, Scoliosis Treatment India